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سفیر قانون - آیین نگارش حقوقی و فن دفاع ( 12 )
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آیین نگارش حقوقی و فن دفاع ( 12 )

نویسنده :جواد مزروعی
تاریخ:شنبه بیست و چهارم مردادماه سال 1394-08:16 بعد از ظهر

ب ـ برگ دادخواست بدوی ( در دعاوی حقوقی ) :

مقدمه :

به موجب ماده ی 48 ق . آ . د . م ، شروع رسیدگی در دادگاه مستلزم تقدیم دادخواست

است . دادخواست به دفتر دادگاه صالح و در نقاطی كه دادگاه دارای شعب متعدد است به

دفتر شعبه اول تسلیم می گردد .

ماده ی 51 ق . آ . د . م شرایط یك دادخواست را به شرح ذیل ذكر كرده است :

1 ـ در برگ چاپی مخصوص نوشته شود .

2 ـ به زبان فارسی نگارش صورت گیرد .

3 ـ نوشتن ؛ نام / نام خانوادگی / نام پدر / سن / شغل و اقامتگاه خواهان .

4 ـ نوشتن ؛ نام / نام خانوادگی / نام پدر / سن / شغل و اقامتگاه خوانده .

5ــ در صورتی كه دادخواست توسط وكیل تنظیم می گردد ، مشخصات كامل وكیل نیز درج

می گردد .

6 ـ تعیین خواسته و بهای آن ( در مواردی كه خواسته مالی بوده و تعیین آن ممكن باشد . )

7 ـ تعهدات و جهاتی كه به موجب آن خواهان خود را مستحق مطالبه می داند .

8 ـ آنچه كه خواهان از دادگاه درخواست دارد .

9 ـ ذكر دلایل و اسناد و منضمات مثبت دعوی خواهان .

10 ـ امضای دادخواست دهنده .

توضیح :

در ماده 78 قانون آیین دادرسی مدنی ، ذكر تاریخ نگارش دادخواست نیز یكی از شروط

تنظیم دادخواست بود . اكنون در قانون جدید این شرط مذكور نیست ولی مدیر دفتر كل دادگاه

پس از وصول دادخواست آنرا ثبت و تاریخ تسلیم را به روز و ماه و سال شمسی ذكر می

نماید .

نكات عمومی در تنظیم برگ دادخواست بدوی :

1 ـ جمع آوری اوراق و مدارك و توضیحات لازم .

2 ـ برگ دادخواست حتی المقدور فشرده و مختصر و مستدل باشد .

3 ـ متن قابل انعطاف باشد بطوری كه در صورت لزوم قابل تغییر باشد .

4 ـ در نگارش برگ دادخواست بایستی ؛

ــ منظور خود را به روشنی به قاضی بفهمانید . ( وضوح و شفافیت در طرح دعوی )

ــ توجه او را به متن جلب كنید.  ( با رعایت اختصار و احتراز از تكرار مطالب )

ــ سعی كنید در نوشته، قاضی را به حقانیت دعوی معتقد سازید . ( با رعایت متانت و

صداقت در كلام و سخن بر اساس دلایل و مدارك موجود . )

بدین ترتیب به قول ویَو نویسنده فرانسوی ؛ [ كافی نیست كه حق به جانب كسی باشد

، بلكه باید بتوان ثابت كرد كه حق به جانب او است . ]

5ــ طرح دعوی / معرفی مدارك / استدلال حقوقی و تطبیق مستندات قانونی با

    موضوع دعوی

نحوه ی عملی تنظیم دادخواست نخستین :

هر برگ دادخواست از بالا به 6 ردیف تقسیم شده كه ردیف های 4 ـ 1 آن به 7 ستون قسمت

شده است . ردیف اول عناوین است و همچنین ستون یكم .

مراحل تنظیم :

( در برگ دادخواستهای جدید ، نام و نام خانوادگی در یك ستون آمده و ستونی با

عنوان « تلفن » اضافه شده است . )

یكم ـ در ردیف دوم در مقابل عنوان « خواهان » مشخصات كامل خواهان شامل ؛ نام ، نام

خانوادگی ، نام پدر ، سن ، شغل و محل اقامت نوشته می شود .

توضیح :

1 ـ مشخصات فردی بایستی طبق مشخصات مندرج در شناسنامه باشد .

2 ـ محل اقامت عبارت از ؛ شهرستان / خیابان / كوچه / پلاك و كدپستی .

3 ـ اگر خواهان یا خوانده شخصیت حقوقی است ، بایستی اقامتگاه شخص حقوقی نوشته

    شود .

4 ـ اگر خواهان ها متعدد باشند . لازم است اسامی و مشخصات همه در این ردیف و پشت

    صفحه  ی دادخواست نوشته شود .

5ــ ماده 1002 قانون مدنی اقامتگاه را اینگونه تعریف كرده است : [ اقامتگاه هر شخص عبارت

از :محلی است كه شخص در آنجا سكونت داشته و مركز مهم امور او نیز در آنجا

باشد . اگر محل سكونت شخصی غیر از مركز مهم امور او باشد ، مركز امور او اقامتگاه

محسوب است . اقامتگاه اشخاص حقوقی مركز عملیات آنها خواهد بود . ]

1 ـ 5 ـ  منظور از « مركز مهم امور » محلی است كه شخص در آنجا از حیثیت شغل و

كسب یا خدمت اداری یا نظامی و یا علاقه ی ملكی اقامت دارد .

2 ـ 5 ـ اقامتگاه اداری شركت همان مركز اصلی شركت می باشد و آن عبارت از محلی است

كه ادارات مركزی شركت در آن محل بوده و هیأت رئیسه شركت در آنجا سكونت دارند و

دستورات شركت از آنجا صادر می گردد . و گزارشهای اجرای آن دستورات در آنجا مستقر و

گردآوری می گردد . و جلسات هیأت مدیره و مجامع شركت در آن محل تشكیل می شود .

3 ـ 5 ـ اقامتگاه زن شوهر دار همان اقامتگاه شوهر است مگر اینكه :

ــ شوهر اقامتگاه معلومی نداشته باشد و زن برای خود اقامتگاهی مستقل داشته باشد .

ــ توافق زن و شوهر بر داشتن اقامتگاه مستقل برای زن .

ــ زن به حكم دادگاه ( به موجب ماده 1115 قانون مدنی ) اقامتگاه مستقلی انتخاب نماید .

4 ـ 5 ـ به موجب ماده 1007 قانون مدنی اقامتگاه كاركنان دولت ، محلی است كه در آنجا

         مأموریت ثابت دارند .

-5 5 ـ به موجب ماده 1008 قانون مدنی اقامتگاه افراد نظامی كه در پادگان هستند ، محل

      پادگان آنهاست .

-6 5 ـ به موجب ماده 1006 قانون مدنی اقامتگاه صغار و محجورین ، همان اقامتگاه ولی یا

      قیم آنهاست .

7 ـ 5 ـ اقامتگاه عشایر همان قلمرو ییلاق و قشلاق و مسیر كوچ آنهاست . گرچه برای ابلاغ

       اوراق قضایی ، امور عشایری آن محل اقامتگاه محسوب می شود .

تذكر مهم :

اگر در دادخواستی شرایط مندرج در ماده ی 51 قانون آیین دادرسی مدنی را نداشته باشد

مدیر دفتر دادگاه ، بدون اخطار به خواهان ، ظرف دو روز از تاریخ رسید دادخواست نسبت به

رد دادخواست اقدام خواهد كرد و این عمل دادگاه به منزله ی « رد فوری » دادخواست است

این قرار اصداری در دفتر دادگاه الصاق می گردد و دادخواست دهنده ظرف 10 روز از تاریخ

الصاق فرصت اعتراض خواهد داشت .

دوم ـ در ردیف دوم با عنوان « خوانده » نام و مشخصات و محل اقامت خوانده ی دعوی

نوشته می شود .

مواردی كه تحت عنوان « توضیح » نوشته شد برای تنظیم مشخصات خوانده نیز بایستی

رعایت شود .




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